- Epub Menkes Syndrome A Bibliography And Dictionary For Physicians Patients And Genome Researchers
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- I. Introduction
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The first finding is usually either spurious, or it is true, but it happens to be really exaggerated : there may be no way to predict which new gene-association studies will be verified with multiple replication ref. The problem is pressing because current trends could exacerbate it : new high-throughput analysis techniques let researchers study many gene-disease associations quickly and cheaply, but also lead to more studies on associations that don't look especially likely at a study's outset.
This tends to increase the likelihood of finding spurious links through chance occurrences. By contrast in the old days, it was a big investment to study a hypothesis, and only the best candidates had a shot. Wacholder suggests researchers revise their statistical methods to account for " prior probability ," which is a subjective but reasonable measure of how plausible the gene-disease association in question looked before the study ref.
Others suggests bigger sample sizes and more family-based studies. These avoid a confounder called population stratification , the tendency of populations to carry high frequencies of both certain genes and certain diseases owing to mere accidents of ancestry : studies with family-based controls and larger sample sizes are more likely to be replicated ref.
Researchers should treat any finding cautiously until it's replicated, preferably more than once. No effort to address the problem is completewithout a renewed call to publish more negative findings showing no gene-disease association. Such findings often go unpublished, bolstering false impressions of spurious gene-disease associations. Every study provides a piece of evidence and it needs to be made available somehow to people who are interested.
Multiple lifestyle factors have been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of osteoporosis Tables and Although previous linkage and candidate gene studies have provided few replicated loci for osteoporosis, genome-wide association studies GWAS have produced multiple candidate genes. To date, several GWAS for osteoporosis and related traits have been conducted. Genetic variants of osteoporosis that may be more or less responsive to certain forms of therapy have not been identified thus far.
Epub Menkes Syndrome A Bibliography And Dictionary For Physicians Patients And Genome Researchers
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Next Chapter. Osteopenia and Osteoporosis. Murray M. Michael F. Murray, et al. Accessed September 24, Download citation file: RIS Zotero. Reference Manager.
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Disease summary: Osteoporosis is a common disease characterized by low bone mass, microarchitectural disruption, and skeletal fragility resulting in an increased risk for fracture.